Psycho 4

Review of: Psycho 4

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Noch nicht als in Reagenzglsern. Nach einem Bilderrahmen.

Psycho 4

Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im DVD & Blu-ray Shop. Über Filme auf DVD bei Thalia ✓»Psycho Collection [4 DVDs] - Amaray«und weitere DVD Filme jetzt online bestellen! Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Psycho IV - Die Begegnung. In diesem vierten Teil von "Psycho" erfährt der Zuschauer mehr über die Mutter von​.

Psycho 4 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Eines Tages ruft Norman Bates als Ed bei einer Radio-Talkshow an. Er erzählt seine Lebensgeschichte, berichtet von seiner Mutter, die ihn in den Wahnsinn trieb und den Morden, die er begangen hat. Als er ankündigt, seine schwangere Frau Conny zu. Psycho IV – The Beginning ist ein US-amerikanischer Psychothriller aus dem Jahr Er ist die letzte Fortsetzung von Alfred Hitchcocks Klassiker Psycho aus. Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im DVD & Blu-ray Shop. nextstepforward.eu - Kaufen Sie Psycho IV: The Beginning günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu​. Fazit: "Psycho 4 - The Beginning" ist nun nicht so schlecht, dass es weh tun würde, aber gelungen ist das hier auch nicht. Der gesamte Film ist einfach. Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Psycho IV - Die Begegnung. In diesem vierten Teil von "Psycho" erfährt der Zuschauer mehr über die Mutter von​. Psycho IV – Die Begegnung: Sendetermine · Streams · DVDs · Cast & Crew.

Psycho 4

Psycho IV – Die Begegnung: Sendetermine · Streams · DVDs · Cast & Crew. Psycho IV: The Beginning ein Film von Mick Garris mit Anthony Perkins, Henry Thomas. Inhaltsangabe: Der anscheinend rehabilitierte Norman Bates (Anthony​. Eines Tages ruft Norman Bates als Ed bei einer Radio-Talkshow an. Er erzählt seine Lebensgeschichte, berichtet von seiner Mutter, die ihn in den Wahnsinn trieb und den Morden, die er begangen hat. Als er ankündigt, seine schwangere Frau Conny zu.

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Their performances are top notch. Psycho IV doesn't go overboard with blood, we only see Norman kill I think one or two people in his flashback to growing up.

I did like that the makers of this one added to the fact that Norman did kill people before Marion Crane was attacked in the famous shower scene.

I liked those scenes with the teenage "Norman". It adds to the scene at the end of the first Psycho where the psychiatrist asks if there were any missing reports on girls in the area.

Psycho IV is a prequel to the film, and adds a lot to the already twisted back story of the Bates clan. It's a good watch, but the ending is pretty weak.

Only true "Psycho" fans interested in the back story of Norman will like this one. There aren't many murders committed in IV like in the second and third sequels.

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Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Anthony Perkins Norman Bates Henry Thomas Young Norman Bates Olivia Hussey Fran Ambrose Warren Frost Leo Richmond Donna Mitchell Connie Bates Tom Schuster Holly Bobbi Evors Gloria John Landis Commentators such as Stephen Rebello and Bill Krohn have argued in favor of Bass' contribution to the scene in his capacity as visual consultant and storyboard artist.

According to Bill Krohn's Hitchcock At Work , Bass' first claim to have directed the scene was in , when he provided a magazine with 48 drawings used as storyboards as proof of his contribution.

Krohn notes that this final transition is highly reminiscent of the iris titles that Bass created for Vertigo.

In order to create an ideal montage for the greatest emotional impact on the audience, Hitchcock shot a lot of footage of this scene which he trimmed down in the editing room.

He even brought a Moviola on the set to gauge the footage required. The final sequence, which his editor George Tomasini worked on with Hitchcock's advice, however did not go far beyond the basic structural elements set up by Bass' storyboards.

According to Donald Spoto in The Dark Side of Genius , Hitchcock's wife, Alma Reville , spotted a blooper in one of the last screenings of Psycho before its official release: after Marion was supposedly dead, one could see her blink.

According to Patricia Hitchcock , talking in Laurent Bouzereau 's "making of" documentary, Alma spotted that Leigh's character appeared to take a breath.

In either case, the postmortem activity was edited out and was never seen by audiences. It is often claimed that, despite its graphic nature, the shower scene never once shows a knife puncturing flesh.

Marion had decided to go back to Phoenix, come clean, and take the consequence, so when she stepped into the bathtub it was as if she were stepping into the baptismal waters.

The spray beating down on her was purifying the corruption from her mind, purging the evil from her soul. She was like a virgin again, tranquil, at peace.

Film theorist Robin Wood also discusses how the shower washes "away her guilt". He comments upon the " alienation effect " of killing off the "apparent center of the film" with which spectators had identified.

Hitchcock insisted that Bernard Herrmann write the score for Psycho despite the composer's refusal to accept a reduced fee for the film's lower budget.

Herrmann used the lowered music budget to his advantage by writing for a string orchestra rather than a full symphonic ensemble, [98] contrary to Hitchcock's request for a jazz score.

Film composer Fred Steiner , in an analysis of the score to Psycho , points out that string instruments gave Herrmann access to a wider range in tone, dynamics, and instrumental special effects than any other single instrumental group would have.

The main title music, a tense, hurtling piece, sets the tone of impending violence, and returns three times on the soundtrack.

There were rumors that Herrmann had used electronic means, including amplified bird screeches to achieve the shocking effect of the music in the shower scene.

The effect was achieved, however, only with violins in a "screeching, stabbing sound-motion of extraordinary viciousness.

Herrmann biographer Steven C. Smith writes that the music for the shower scene is "probably the most famous and most imitated cue in film music," [] but Hitchcock was originally opposed to having music in this scene.

Herrmann reminded Hitchcock of his instructions not to score this scene, to which Hitchcock replied, "Improper suggestion, my boy, improper suggestion.

The second one, over the score for Torn Curtain , resulted in the end of their professional collaboration. To honor the fiftieth anniversary of Psycho , in July , the San Francisco Symphony [] obtained a print of the film with the soundtrack removed, and projected it on a large screen in Davies Symphony Hall while the orchestra performed the score live.

This was previously mounted by the Seattle Symphony in October as well, performing at the Benaroya Hall for two consecutive evenings.

Psycho is a prime example of the type of film that appeared in the United States during the s after the erosion of the Production Code.

It was unprecedented in its depiction of sexuality and violence, right from the opening scene in which Sam and Marion are shown as lovers sharing the same bed, with Marion in a bra.

Another controversial issue was the gender bending element. Perkins, who was allegedly a homosexual , [] and Hitchcock, who previously made Rope , were both experienced in the film's transgressive subject matter.

The viewer is unaware of the Bates' gender bending, until, at the end of the movie, it is revealed that Bates crossdresses as his mother during the attempted murder of Lila.

At the station, Sam asks why Bates was dressed that way. The police officer, ignorant of Bates' split personality, bluntly utters that Bates is a transvestite.

The psychiatrist corrects him and says, "Not exactly". He explains that Bates believes that he is his own mother when he dresses in her clothes.

According to the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho , the censors in charge of enforcing the Production Code wrangled with Hitchcock because some of them insisted they could see one of Leigh's breasts.

Hitchcock held onto the print for several days, left it untouched, and resubmitted it for approval.

Each of the censors reversed their positions: those who had previously seen the breast now did not, and those who had not, now did. They passed the film after the director removed one shot that showed the buttocks of Leigh's stand-in.

Because board members did not show up for the re-shoot, the opening stayed. Another cause of concern for the censors was that Marion was shown flushing a toilet, with its contents torn-up note paper fully visible.

No flushing toilet had appeared in mainstream film and television in the United States at that time. Internationally, Hitchcock was forced to make minor changes to the film, mostly to the shower scene.

In Britain, the BBFC requested cuts to stabbing sounds and visible nude shots, and in New Zealand the shot of Norman washing blood from his hands was objected to.

In Singapore, though the shower scene was left untouched, the murder of Arbogast, and a shot of Norman's mother's corpse were removed. The next year, a highly edited version missing some feet of film was submitted to the Irish censor.

O'Hara ultimately requested that an additional seven cuts be made: the line where Marion tells Sam to put his shoes on which implied that he earlier had his trousers off , two shots of Norman spying on Marion through the key-hole, Marion's undressing, the shots of Marion's blood flowing down the shower, the shots of Norman washing his hands when blood is visible, incidents of multiple stabbings "One stab is surely enough," wrote O'Hara , the words "in bed" from the Sheriff's wife's line "Norman found them dead together in bed," and Abogast's questions to Norman about whether he spent the night with Marion.

The most controversial move was Hitchcock's "no late admission" policy for the film, which was unusual for the time.

It was not entirely original as Clouzot had done the same in France for Diabolique. However, after the first day, the owners enjoyed long lines of people waiting to see the film.

Hitchcock did most of the promotion himself, forbidding Leigh and Perkins to make the usual television, radio, and print interviews for fear of them revealing the plot.

The film's original trailer features a jovial Hitchcock taking the viewer on a tour of the set, and almost giving away plot details before stopping himself.

It is "tracked" with Herrmann's Psycho theme, but also jovial music from Hitchcock's comedy The Trouble with Harry ; most of Hitchcock's dialogue is post-synchronized.

The trailer was made after completion of the film, and because Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Vera Miles don a blonde wig and scream loudly as he pulled the shower curtain back in the bathroom sequence of the preview.

Because the title Psycho instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years.

However, a freeze-frame analysis clearly reveals that it is Miles and not Leigh in the shower during the trailer. Percy , was murdered.

As her parents slept mere feet away, she was stabbed a dozen times with a double-edged knife. In light of the murder, CBS agreed to postpone the broadcast.

As a result of the Apollo pad fire of January 27, , the network washed its hands of Psycho. Shortly afterward Paramount included the film in its first syndicated package of post movies, "Portfolio I".

Following another successful theatrical reissue in , the film finally made its way to general television broadcast in one of Universal's syndicated programming packages for local stations in Psycho was aired for 20 years in this format, then leased to cable for two years before returning to syndication as part of the "List of a Lifetime" package.

Psycho has been rated and re-rated several times over the years by the MPAA. Later, when the MPAA switched to a voluntary letter ratings system in , Psycho was one of a number of high-profile motion pictures to be retro-rated with an "M" Mature Audiences.

DiscoVision first released Psycho on the LaserDisc format in "standard play" 5 sides in , and "extended play" 2 sides in October This THX-certified Widescreen 1.

For the DVD release, Laurent Bouzereau produced a documentary looking at the film's production and reception.

Universal released a 50th anniversary edition on Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on August 9, , [] with Australia making the same edition with a different cover available on September 1, This release marked the first time that the "Uncut" theatrical version was released on home video in 60 years.

Initial reviews of the film were mixed. While the film did not conclude satisfactorily for the critic, he commended the cast's performances as "fair".

Lejeune was so offended that she not only walked out before the end but permanently resigned her post as film critic for The Observer. Janet Leigh has never been better", "played out beautifully", and "first American movie since Touch of Evil to stand in the same creative rank as the great European films", respectively.

Mainstream audiences enjoyed the film, with lines stretching outside of theaters as people had to wait for the next showing.

This, along with box office numbers, led to a reconsideration of the film by critics, and it eventually received a large amount of praise. In the United Kingdom, the film broke attendance records at the London Plaza Cinema, but nearly all British film critics gave it poor reviews, questioning Hitchcock's taste and judgment.

Reasons cited for this were the critics' late screenings, forcing them to rush their reviews, their dislike of the gimmicky promotion, and Hitchcock's expatriate status.

Time magazine switched its opinion from "Hitchcock bears down too heavily in this one" to "superlative" and "masterly", and Bosley Crowther put it on his Top Ten list of The site's critical consensus states, "Infamous for its shower scene, but immortal for its contribution to the horror genre.

Because Psycho was filmed with tact, grace, and art, Hitchcock didn't just create modern horror, he validated it.

Psycho was criticized for causing other filmmakers to show gory content; three years later, Blood Feast , considered to be the first " splatter film ", was released.

In Psycho , Hitchcock subverts the romantic elements that are seen in most of his work. The film is instead ironic as it presents "clarity and fulfillment" of romance.

The past is central to the film; the main characters "struggle to understand and resolve destructive personal histories" and ultimately fail.

The myth does not sustain with Marion, who dies hopelessly in her room at the Bates Motel. The room is wallpapered with floral print like Persephone's flowers, but they are only "reflected in mirrors, as images of images—twice removed from reality".

In the scene of Marion's death, Brill describes the transition from the bathroom drain to Marion's lifeless eye, "Like the eye of the amorphous sea creature at the end of Fellini's La Dolce Vita , it marks the birth of death, an emblem of final hopelessness and corruption.

Marion is deprived of "the humble treasures of love, marriage, home and family", which Hitchcock considers elements of human happiness. There exists among Psycho ' s secondary characters a lack of "familial warmth and stability", which demonstrates the unlikelihood of domestic fantasies.

The film contains ironic jokes about domesticity, such as when Sam writes a letter to Marion, agreeing to marry her, only after the audience sees her buried in the swamp.

Sam and Marion's sister Lila, in investigating Marion's disappearance, develop an "increasingly connubial" relationship, a development that Marion is denied.

He has "an infantile and divided personality" and lives in a mansion whose past occupies the present. Norman displays stuffed birds that are "frozen in time" and keeps childhood toys and stuffed animals in his room.

He is hostile toward suggestions to move from the past, such as with Marion's suggestion to put his mother "someplace" and as a result kills Marion to preserve his past.

Brill explains, " 'Someplace' for Norman is where his delusions of love, home, and family are declared invalid and exposed. Light and darkness feature prominently in Psycho.

The first shot after the intertitle is the sunny landscape of Phoenix before the camera enters a dark hotel room where Sam and Marion appear as bright figures.

Marion is almost immediately cast in darkness; she is preceded by her shadow as she reenters the office to steal money and as she enters her bedroom.

When she flees Phoenix, darkness descends on her drive. The following sunny morning is punctured by a watchful police officer with black sunglasses, and she finally arrives at the Bates Motel in near darkness.

Examples of brightness include the opening window shades in Sam's and Marion's hotel room, vehicle headlights at night, the neon sign at the Bates Motel, "the glaring white" of the bathroom tiles where Marion dies, and the fruit cellar's exposed light bulb shining on the corpse of Norman's mother.

Such bright lights typically characterize danger and violence in Hitchcock's films. The film often features shadows, mirrors, windows, and, less so, water.

The shadows are present from the first scene where the blinds make bars on Marion and Sam as they peer out of the window. The stuffed birds' shadows loom over Marion as she eats, and Norman's mother is seen in only shadows until the end.

More subtly, backlighting turns the rakes in the hardware store into talons above Lila's head. Mirrors reflect Marion as she packs, her eyes as she checks the rear-view mirror, her face in the policeman's sunglasses, and her hands as she counts out the money in the car dealership's bathroom.

A motel window serves as a mirror by reflecting Marion and Norman together. Hitchcock shoots through Marion's windshield and the telephone booth, when Arbogast phones Sam and Lila.

The heavy downpour can be seen as a foreshadowing of the shower, and its cessation can be seen as a symbol of Marion making up her mind to return to Phoenix.

There are a number of references to birds. Marion's last name is Crane and she is from Phoenix. Norman comments that Marion eats like a bird. The motel room has pictures of birds on the wall.

Brigitte Peucker also suggests that Norman's hobby of stuffing birds literalizes the British slang expression for sex, "stuffing birds", bird being British slang for a desirable woman.

Psycho has been called "the first psychoanalytical thriller. In , the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.

Psycho has appeared on a number of lists by websites, television channels, and magazines. The shower scene was featured as number four on the list of Bravo Network's Scariest Movie Moments, [] whilst the finale was ranked number four on Premiere ' s similar list.

In , the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the twelfth best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership.

American Film Institute has included Psycho in these lists:. Psycho has become one of the most recognizable films in cinema history, and is arguably Hitchcock's best known film.

This played on his reader's expectations of traditional plots, leaving them uncertain and anxious. Hitchcock recognized the effect this approach could have on audiences, and utilized it in his adaptation, killing off Leigh's character at the end of the first act.

This daring plot device, coupled with the fact that the character was played by the biggest box-office name in the film, was a shocking turn of events in The shower scene has become a pop culture touchstone and is often regarded as one of the most terrifying scenes ever filmed.

Its effectiveness is often credited to the use of startling editing techniques borrowed from the Soviet montage filmmakers, [] [] and to the iconic screeching violins in Bernard Herrmann 's musical score.

The scene has been frequently spoofed and referenced in popular culture, complete with the violin screeching sound effects see Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , among many others.

Psycho is considered by some to be the first film in the slasher film genre, [] though some critics and film historians point to Michael Powell's Peeping Tom , a lesser-known film with similar themes of voyeurism and sexualized violence, whose release happened to precede Psycho ' s by a few months.

Psycho has been referenced in other films numerous times: examples include the musical horror film Phantom of the Paradise ; the horror film Halloween which starred Jamie Lee Curtis , Janet Leigh's daughter, and Donald Pleasence 's character was named " Sam Loomis " ; [] the Mel Brooks tribute to many of Hitchcock's thrillers, High Anxiety ; the Fade to Black ; the Dressed to Kill ; and Wes Craven 's horror satire Scream.

The film boosted Perkins' career, but he soon began to suffer from typecasting. One letter was so "grotesque" that she passed it to the FBI.

Two agents visited Leigh and told her the culprits had been located and that she should notify the FBI if she received any more letters of that type.

Leigh said, "no other murder mystery in the history of the movies has inspired such merchandising. In , it was adapted scene-for-scene into three comic books by the Innovative Corporation.

Anthony Perkins returned to his role of Norman Bates in all three sequels, and also directed the third film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the film.

For the remake, see Psycho film. For the sequels, see Psycho franchise. Release date. Running time. Play media. See also: Psycho franchise.

July 21, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 18, Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 25, June 22, Retrieved June 15, USC Dornsife.

University of Southern California. Retrieved 17 June British Film Institute. Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved December 30, Box Office Mojo.

Retrieved October 20, Retrieved June 16, Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 17, Library of Congress, Washington, D.

Retrieved May 8, Retrieved August 4, Psycho: Behind the Scenes of the Classic Thriller. Harmony Press, , p.

Reproduced at". Retrieved January 26, July Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved March 13, CBS News. Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved April 24, September Hitchcock, Welles".

Bright Lights Film Journal. Archived from the original on July 13, The Atlantic Monthly , May ". May Retrieved August 5, The Guardian.

February 6, — via www. January The Film Music Pantheon 3. Archived from the original on April 6, Archived from the original on March 14, History channel.

The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, BBC News. May 20, Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved February 18, Retrieved August 30, Archive of American Television.

October 23, Retrieved June 25, Evening Standard. Archived from the original on January 12, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved November 20, Great Movies.

Retrieved December 1, May 8, Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved March 10, A heart at fire's centre: the life and music of Bernard Herrmann.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved on November 21, The Daily Telegraph. October 28, Retrieved May 22, November 19, Retrieved November 23,

Psycho 4 Get Out Stream Online 2 - Die Mörderpuppe Willow Rosenberg zurück. Lauflänge: 92 Minuten. Ok, verstanden. Zurück in die Zukunft 2 - Back to the Aggregat 2. Home Videokassetten aller Genres ohne indizierte! Norman displays stuffed birds that are "frozen in time" and keeps childhood toys and stuffed animals in his Nfs Underground. Film theorist Robin Wood also discusses how the shower washes "away her guilt". July 21, Inthe Library Ibrahim Moussa Congress deemed the film "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. Sound Mix: Rtl Know. The Bates Motel has never looked more inviting. Best Cinematography — Black-and-White. Green, working with storyboard artist Saul Bass' drawings He Is My Master while Hitchcock was incapacitated with the common cold. Lady Dracula VPS. Paperhouse - Alpträume werden wahr. Diese Website verwendet Cookies, um Ihnen die bestmögliche Funktionalität bieten zu können. Der Unsichtbare. Zu Gast im Studio der Radiosendung ist Dr. Wer Funny Games Imdb glei Hintergrund ist dabei die Tatsache, dass Connie das gemeinsame Kind gegen Normans Willen austragen will. Survive the Night. Kinoprogramm Gröditz Bates wollte ihren Sohn so lange einsperren, bis dieser gelernt hatte, seinen Trieb zu kontrollieren. Psycho 4 Endlich ist es soweit: Wir erfahren das nie zuvor gelüftete Geheimnis über Norman Bates und seine Mutter. Die grausame Wahrheit über ihr Leben und ihren. Über Filme auf DVD bei Thalia ✓»Psycho Collection [4 DVDs] - Amaray«und weitere DVD Filme jetzt online bestellen! Psycho IV: The Beginning ein Film von Mick Garris mit Anthony Perkins, Henry Thomas. Inhaltsangabe: Der anscheinend rehabilitierte Norman Bates (Anthony​. Psycho 4 - The Beginning. CIC Video. Psycho IV - The Beginning. Dieser Artikel steht derzeit nicht zur Verfügung! Benachrichtigen Sie mich, wenn der Artikel.

Throughout the initial scenes in the hotel room, office, and Marion's home, the audio is intentionally muted to heighten the growing sense of unease.

Then it starts to rain, and that's when this track kicks into high gear. The desert downpour cascades over us, with the sound of falling water emanating from every speaker.

At one point, I honestly thought my ceiling was leaking. It's a great effect and the enhanced audio executes it flawlessly. Footsteps are wonderfully crisp, as are squeaky doors, the bubbles of the swamp, the rattle of the shower curtain as it's ripped from its rings.

Even the actors' voices exhibit a greater richness of tone, drawing us deeper into their intimate exchanges. Never has Leigh's throaty alto sounded so mellifluous, and Mother's raspy, shrill barking brandishes more bite than in previous renditions.

Surround effects are sporadic but highly effective. At times, Herrmann's score envelopes and bits of atmosphere bleed to the rears the sound of a shutting door emanating from the left rear speaker gave me a jolt , but the track remains refreshingly true to its source.

A wide dynamic scale fully embraces the music, so distortion is never an issue. The upper register is impressive, but it's the bass frequencies that really shine, highlighting the dulcet foreboding of the cellos that eerily underscore so many scenes.

Every word of dialogue is crystal clear, silences are clean, and not a single bit of surface noise sullies the track.

Purists will be happy to learn the film's original mono track is also included on the disc, presented in DTS 2. There are no issues with the DTS:X track.

We will update this review once we receive and examine the replacement discs. All the supplements from the previous Blu-ray edition have been ported over to this release, and the good news is they all reside on the 4K UHD disc, as well as the standard Blu-ray.

For a complete review of the supplements, click here. The Bates Motel has never looked more inviting.

A new DTS:X audio track ratchets up the creepy atmosphere, an alternate "uncut" version supplies a few extra titillating images, and all the supplements from previous releases are included on the disc.

Founded in April , High-Def Digest is the ultimate guide for High-Def enthusiasts who demand only the best that money can buy. Updated daily and in real-time, we track all high-def disc news and release dates, and review the latest disc titles.

Ultra HD: Must Own. Release Date: September 8th, Overview - The shower. Final Thoughts. Previous Next. Archer: The Complete Season Seven.

Survivor: Worlds Apart - Season X-Men: The Adamantium Collection. This is 4k! Herrmann used the lowered music budget to his advantage by writing for a string orchestra rather than a full symphonic ensemble, [98] contrary to Hitchcock's request for a jazz score.

Film composer Fred Steiner , in an analysis of the score to Psycho , points out that string instruments gave Herrmann access to a wider range in tone, dynamics, and instrumental special effects than any other single instrumental group would have.

The main title music, a tense, hurtling piece, sets the tone of impending violence, and returns three times on the soundtrack. There were rumors that Herrmann had used electronic means, including amplified bird screeches to achieve the shocking effect of the music in the shower scene.

The effect was achieved, however, only with violins in a "screeching, stabbing sound-motion of extraordinary viciousness.

Herrmann biographer Steven C. Smith writes that the music for the shower scene is "probably the most famous and most imitated cue in film music," [] but Hitchcock was originally opposed to having music in this scene.

Herrmann reminded Hitchcock of his instructions not to score this scene, to which Hitchcock replied, "Improper suggestion, my boy, improper suggestion.

The second one, over the score for Torn Curtain , resulted in the end of their professional collaboration. To honor the fiftieth anniversary of Psycho , in July , the San Francisco Symphony [] obtained a print of the film with the soundtrack removed, and projected it on a large screen in Davies Symphony Hall while the orchestra performed the score live.

This was previously mounted by the Seattle Symphony in October as well, performing at the Benaroya Hall for two consecutive evenings.

Psycho is a prime example of the type of film that appeared in the United States during the s after the erosion of the Production Code.

It was unprecedented in its depiction of sexuality and violence, right from the opening scene in which Sam and Marion are shown as lovers sharing the same bed, with Marion in a bra.

Another controversial issue was the gender bending element. Perkins, who was allegedly a homosexual , [] and Hitchcock, who previously made Rope , were both experienced in the film's transgressive subject matter.

The viewer is unaware of the Bates' gender bending, until, at the end of the movie, it is revealed that Bates crossdresses as his mother during the attempted murder of Lila.

At the station, Sam asks why Bates was dressed that way. The police officer, ignorant of Bates' split personality, bluntly utters that Bates is a transvestite.

The psychiatrist corrects him and says, "Not exactly". He explains that Bates believes that he is his own mother when he dresses in her clothes.

According to the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho , the censors in charge of enforcing the Production Code wrangled with Hitchcock because some of them insisted they could see one of Leigh's breasts.

Hitchcock held onto the print for several days, left it untouched, and resubmitted it for approval. Each of the censors reversed their positions: those who had previously seen the breast now did not, and those who had not, now did.

They passed the film after the director removed one shot that showed the buttocks of Leigh's stand-in. Because board members did not show up for the re-shoot, the opening stayed.

Another cause of concern for the censors was that Marion was shown flushing a toilet, with its contents torn-up note paper fully visible.

No flushing toilet had appeared in mainstream film and television in the United States at that time. Internationally, Hitchcock was forced to make minor changes to the film, mostly to the shower scene.

In Britain, the BBFC requested cuts to stabbing sounds and visible nude shots, and in New Zealand the shot of Norman washing blood from his hands was objected to.

In Singapore, though the shower scene was left untouched, the murder of Arbogast, and a shot of Norman's mother's corpse were removed.

The next year, a highly edited version missing some feet of film was submitted to the Irish censor. O'Hara ultimately requested that an additional seven cuts be made: the line where Marion tells Sam to put his shoes on which implied that he earlier had his trousers off , two shots of Norman spying on Marion through the key-hole, Marion's undressing, the shots of Marion's blood flowing down the shower, the shots of Norman washing his hands when blood is visible, incidents of multiple stabbings "One stab is surely enough," wrote O'Hara , the words "in bed" from the Sheriff's wife's line "Norman found them dead together in bed," and Abogast's questions to Norman about whether he spent the night with Marion.

The most controversial move was Hitchcock's "no late admission" policy for the film, which was unusual for the time. It was not entirely original as Clouzot had done the same in France for Diabolique.

However, after the first day, the owners enjoyed long lines of people waiting to see the film. Hitchcock did most of the promotion himself, forbidding Leigh and Perkins to make the usual television, radio, and print interviews for fear of them revealing the plot.

The film's original trailer features a jovial Hitchcock taking the viewer on a tour of the set, and almost giving away plot details before stopping himself.

It is "tracked" with Herrmann's Psycho theme, but also jovial music from Hitchcock's comedy The Trouble with Harry ; most of Hitchcock's dialogue is post-synchronized.

The trailer was made after completion of the film, and because Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Vera Miles don a blonde wig and scream loudly as he pulled the shower curtain back in the bathroom sequence of the preview.

Because the title Psycho instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years.

However, a freeze-frame analysis clearly reveals that it is Miles and not Leigh in the shower during the trailer. Percy , was murdered. As her parents slept mere feet away, she was stabbed a dozen times with a double-edged knife.

In light of the murder, CBS agreed to postpone the broadcast. As a result of the Apollo pad fire of January 27, , the network washed its hands of Psycho.

Shortly afterward Paramount included the film in its first syndicated package of post movies, "Portfolio I". Following another successful theatrical reissue in , the film finally made its way to general television broadcast in one of Universal's syndicated programming packages for local stations in Psycho was aired for 20 years in this format, then leased to cable for two years before returning to syndication as part of the "List of a Lifetime" package.

Psycho has been rated and re-rated several times over the years by the MPAA. Later, when the MPAA switched to a voluntary letter ratings system in , Psycho was one of a number of high-profile motion pictures to be retro-rated with an "M" Mature Audiences.

DiscoVision first released Psycho on the LaserDisc format in "standard play" 5 sides in , and "extended play" 2 sides in October This THX-certified Widescreen 1.

For the DVD release, Laurent Bouzereau produced a documentary looking at the film's production and reception. Universal released a 50th anniversary edition on Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on August 9, , [] with Australia making the same edition with a different cover available on September 1, This release marked the first time that the "Uncut" theatrical version was released on home video in 60 years.

Initial reviews of the film were mixed. While the film did not conclude satisfactorily for the critic, he commended the cast's performances as "fair".

Lejeune was so offended that she not only walked out before the end but permanently resigned her post as film critic for The Observer.

Janet Leigh has never been better", "played out beautifully", and "first American movie since Touch of Evil to stand in the same creative rank as the great European films", respectively.

Mainstream audiences enjoyed the film, with lines stretching outside of theaters as people had to wait for the next showing.

This, along with box office numbers, led to a reconsideration of the film by critics, and it eventually received a large amount of praise. In the United Kingdom, the film broke attendance records at the London Plaza Cinema, but nearly all British film critics gave it poor reviews, questioning Hitchcock's taste and judgment.

Reasons cited for this were the critics' late screenings, forcing them to rush their reviews, their dislike of the gimmicky promotion, and Hitchcock's expatriate status.

Time magazine switched its opinion from "Hitchcock bears down too heavily in this one" to "superlative" and "masterly", and Bosley Crowther put it on his Top Ten list of The site's critical consensus states, "Infamous for its shower scene, but immortal for its contribution to the horror genre.

Because Psycho was filmed with tact, grace, and art, Hitchcock didn't just create modern horror, he validated it.

Psycho was criticized for causing other filmmakers to show gory content; three years later, Blood Feast , considered to be the first " splatter film ", was released.

In Psycho , Hitchcock subverts the romantic elements that are seen in most of his work. The film is instead ironic as it presents "clarity and fulfillment" of romance.

The past is central to the film; the main characters "struggle to understand and resolve destructive personal histories" and ultimately fail.

The myth does not sustain with Marion, who dies hopelessly in her room at the Bates Motel. The room is wallpapered with floral print like Persephone's flowers, but they are only "reflected in mirrors, as images of images—twice removed from reality".

In the scene of Marion's death, Brill describes the transition from the bathroom drain to Marion's lifeless eye, "Like the eye of the amorphous sea creature at the end of Fellini's La Dolce Vita , it marks the birth of death, an emblem of final hopelessness and corruption.

Marion is deprived of "the humble treasures of love, marriage, home and family", which Hitchcock considers elements of human happiness. There exists among Psycho ' s secondary characters a lack of "familial warmth and stability", which demonstrates the unlikelihood of domestic fantasies.

The film contains ironic jokes about domesticity, such as when Sam writes a letter to Marion, agreeing to marry her, only after the audience sees her buried in the swamp.

Sam and Marion's sister Lila, in investigating Marion's disappearance, develop an "increasingly connubial" relationship, a development that Marion is denied.

He has "an infantile and divided personality" and lives in a mansion whose past occupies the present. Norman displays stuffed birds that are "frozen in time" and keeps childhood toys and stuffed animals in his room.

He is hostile toward suggestions to move from the past, such as with Marion's suggestion to put his mother "someplace" and as a result kills Marion to preserve his past.

Brill explains, " 'Someplace' for Norman is where his delusions of love, home, and family are declared invalid and exposed. Light and darkness feature prominently in Psycho.

The first shot after the intertitle is the sunny landscape of Phoenix before the camera enters a dark hotel room where Sam and Marion appear as bright figures.

Marion is almost immediately cast in darkness; she is preceded by her shadow as she reenters the office to steal money and as she enters her bedroom.

When she flees Phoenix, darkness descends on her drive. The following sunny morning is punctured by a watchful police officer with black sunglasses, and she finally arrives at the Bates Motel in near darkness.

Examples of brightness include the opening window shades in Sam's and Marion's hotel room, vehicle headlights at night, the neon sign at the Bates Motel, "the glaring white" of the bathroom tiles where Marion dies, and the fruit cellar's exposed light bulb shining on the corpse of Norman's mother.

Such bright lights typically characterize danger and violence in Hitchcock's films. The film often features shadows, mirrors, windows, and, less so, water.

The shadows are present from the first scene where the blinds make bars on Marion and Sam as they peer out of the window.

The stuffed birds' shadows loom over Marion as she eats, and Norman's mother is seen in only shadows until the end. More subtly, backlighting turns the rakes in the hardware store into talons above Lila's head.

Mirrors reflect Marion as she packs, her eyes as she checks the rear-view mirror, her face in the policeman's sunglasses, and her hands as she counts out the money in the car dealership's bathroom.

A motel window serves as a mirror by reflecting Marion and Norman together. Hitchcock shoots through Marion's windshield and the telephone booth, when Arbogast phones Sam and Lila.

The heavy downpour can be seen as a foreshadowing of the shower, and its cessation can be seen as a symbol of Marion making up her mind to return to Phoenix.

There are a number of references to birds. Marion's last name is Crane and she is from Phoenix. Norman comments that Marion eats like a bird.

The motel room has pictures of birds on the wall. Brigitte Peucker also suggests that Norman's hobby of stuffing birds literalizes the British slang expression for sex, "stuffing birds", bird being British slang for a desirable woman.

Psycho has been called "the first psychoanalytical thriller. In , the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.

Psycho has appeared on a number of lists by websites, television channels, and magazines. The shower scene was featured as number four on the list of Bravo Network's Scariest Movie Moments, [] whilst the finale was ranked number four on Premiere ' s similar list.

In , the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the twelfth best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership.

American Film Institute has included Psycho in these lists:. Psycho has become one of the most recognizable films in cinema history, and is arguably Hitchcock's best known film.

This played on his reader's expectations of traditional plots, leaving them uncertain and anxious.

Hitchcock recognized the effect this approach could have on audiences, and utilized it in his adaptation, killing off Leigh's character at the end of the first act.

This daring plot device, coupled with the fact that the character was played by the biggest box-office name in the film, was a shocking turn of events in The shower scene has become a pop culture touchstone and is often regarded as one of the most terrifying scenes ever filmed.

Its effectiveness is often credited to the use of startling editing techniques borrowed from the Soviet montage filmmakers, [] [] and to the iconic screeching violins in Bernard Herrmann 's musical score.

The scene has been frequently spoofed and referenced in popular culture, complete with the violin screeching sound effects see Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , among many others.

Psycho is considered by some to be the first film in the slasher film genre, [] though some critics and film historians point to Michael Powell's Peeping Tom , a lesser-known film with similar themes of voyeurism and sexualized violence, whose release happened to precede Psycho ' s by a few months.

Psycho has been referenced in other films numerous times: examples include the musical horror film Phantom of the Paradise ; the horror film Halloween which starred Jamie Lee Curtis , Janet Leigh's daughter, and Donald Pleasence 's character was named " Sam Loomis " ; [] the Mel Brooks tribute to many of Hitchcock's thrillers, High Anxiety ; the Fade to Black ; the Dressed to Kill ; and Wes Craven 's horror satire Scream.

The film boosted Perkins' career, but he soon began to suffer from typecasting. One letter was so "grotesque" that she passed it to the FBI.

Two agents visited Leigh and told her the culprits had been located and that she should notify the FBI if she received any more letters of that type.

Leigh said, "no other murder mystery in the history of the movies has inspired such merchandising. In , it was adapted scene-for-scene into three comic books by the Innovative Corporation.

Anthony Perkins returned to his role of Norman Bates in all three sequels, and also directed the third film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the film. For the remake, see Psycho film. For the sequels, see Psycho franchise.

Release date. Running time. Play media. See also: Psycho franchise. July 21, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 18, Turner Classic Movies.

Retrieved April 25, June 22, Retrieved June 15, USC Dornsife. University of Southern California. Retrieved 17 June British Film Institute.

Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved December 30, Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 20, Retrieved June 16, Over the years, Norma who is implied to suffer from schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder dominates her son, teaching him that sex is sinful , dressing him in girl's clothes and lipstick as punishment for getting an erection during potentially incestuous foreplay that Norma initiated in the first place.

She also takes her frustration out on Norman when business at the hotel fails due to the new interstate routing potential customers away from their location.

The two live in contented isolation at the large house as if there is no one else in the world until, in , she becomes engaged to a brutish man named Chet Rudolph.

Driven over the edge with jealousy and Chet's abuse which Norma encourages , Norman kills both of them by serving them poisoned iced tea.

He then steals and preserves his mother's corpse. He develops a split personality in which he "becomes" his mother to suppress the guilt of murdering her; whenever this personality takes over, it drives him to dress in his mother's clothes, put on a wig, and talk to himself in her voice.

As "Mother", he murders two local women who try to seduce him during their stay at his newly opened motel.

After these and other killings, Norman appears to have no recollection of committing the murders himself and believes "Mother" is alone responsible.

In the present day, Dr. Richmond realizes "Ed" is Norman and tries to convince Ambrose to trace the calls. Richmond's worries are dismissed.

Norman fears he will go insane and kill again. He tells Fran that Connie got pregnant against his wishes and that he does not want to create another "monster".

He then tells Fran he realizes that his mother is dead, but he fears that his mother may repossess him and kill Connie "with my own hands, just like the first time.

Norman takes his wife to his mother's house and does attempt to kill her, but Connie reminds Norman that it was his own choice to go insane and do the things he did also expressing that she never murdered anyone and reassures Norman that their child will not be a monster with their guidance; he realizes the truth to having freedom of choice, and he drops his knife.

Connie forgives him. Finally, Norman impulsively sets fire to the house where all his unhappiness began. As he tries to escape the flames, he hallucinates that he sees his victims, his mother and eventually himself preserving her corpse.

Norman barely flees the burning house alive. He and Connie leave the next day. Norman happily proclaims, "I'm free," indicating that his mother will never again haunt his mind and drive him insane.

Then, the wooden doors of the house cellar close on the rocking chair that continues to rock; at which point "Mother" screams, even breaking down crying, for Norman to release her before the screen cuts to black and the sound of a baby crying is heard.

The facade of the Bates Motel and the Bates mansion were re-created at the theme park. The production was originally to be filmed before the opening of the park but due to delays and the studio's desire to have a high-profile production on the lot, the film was shot while the park was open.

This led to tourists being able to watch the filming of several scenes at the motel and house on the back lot. He had disliked the first two Psycho sequels, feeling that they were too commercial and catered to the conventions of slasher films.

Actress Olivia Hussey was directly offered the role of Mrs. It was the intention of writer Joseph Stefano to make her at a young age as attractive as Norman had been in the first film.

Thomas stated, in the documentary The Psycho Legacy , "Looking back on it now, he knew he had to have this conversation with me but I don't think that he was really into it.

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